Recommended Reading

Electricity Daily Editor and Publisher Robert Marritz shared some of his own opinions on the Arizona solar debate in his introduction to an op-ed article by Barbara Lockwood, APS Vice President, Regulation, that touts our pioneering solar leadership.
- Electricity Daily (October 2016): Searching for Sustainable Solar Policies

An administrative law judge for the Arizona Corporation Commission recommended in its value and cost of distributed generation action that regulators eventually end net metering at retail rates and compensate future rooftop solar customers using different formulas.
-Greentech Media (Nov. 1, 2016): Continued uncertainty as Arizona's value-of-solar proceeding nears an end

The Nevada Public Utility Commission chairman talks about the need to change the state's solar policy and virulent opposition from the rooftop leasing companies to their decision.

-Fortune (April 12, 2016): The Other Side of the Solar Firestorm in Nevada

An advocacy group led by third-party rooftop leasing companies is dividing the solar industry and creating tension with regulators because of its politically motivated activities on critical energy policy issues across the United States.
-Utility Dive (Dec. 3, 2015): Is TASC splintering the rooftop solar industry?

The Hawaii Public Utilities Commission closed the net metering program of the state's largest electric utility to new customers, citing the significant penetration of rooftop solar in its service territory. The commission said this was a first step for developing a longer-term solution to achieve the state's 100-percent renewables standard by 2050. 
-Greentech Media (Oct. 14, 2015): Hawaii regulators shut down HECO's net metering program

Rate design elements such as net metering and time-of-use pricing can have a substantial impact on the deployment of rooftop solar, and reports of a utility "death spiral" are inaccurate, according to report from researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
-Report (July 2015): Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

Federal and state solar subsidies should be redirected to provide incentives for production instead of installations to better prepare the electric grid for large-scale solar energy usesays a report from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Energy Initiative.
-Reuters (May 5, 2015): Shift in U.S. federal solar funding needed for large-scale deployment: report

H. Edwin Overcast, Ph. D., a director in Black & Veatch’s management consulting business specializing in regulatory policy and economics, energy pricing and rate design and economic analysis, explains the need for updated pricing models.
-Utility Dive (March 10, 2015): Black & Veatch: Why fixed charges are a solution to the solar conundrum
While the potential of battery energy storage continues to grow, prohibitively high costs for batteries and the convenience of grid-supplied electricity greatly reduce the risk of customer defections for utilities.
-PV Tech (Jan. 14, 2015): Moody’s and Navigant Offer Conflicting Views on Economics of Solar-Plus-Storage
Monica Martinez, a former member of the Michigan Public Service Commission, writes that net metering and other policies meant to promote the growth of renewable resources “are amplifying our nation’s inequality problem.”
-Fox News Latino (Dec. 22, 2014): Opinion: We Shouldn’t Exacerbate Income Equality Because We Want to Encourage Clean Energy
Rooftop solar is prompting utilities to modernize the grid, rethink business models and give consumers more choice, but experts say net metering policies are shifting the costs of maintaining the grid more toward non-solar customers.
-CNBC (Oct. 12, 2014): Solar Firms, Power Companies Battle over ‘Net Metering’
Solar Policy Resources:
The North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center provides a state-by-state overview of net metering and other distributed solar policies in its quarterly report.
-The 50 States of Solar: A Quarterly Look at America’s Fast-Evolving Distributed Solar Policy Conversation. (updated October 2016)
The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has developed an action plan to modernize the grid as distributed energy resources increase and, at the same time, recover costs from all customers who benefit from the grid’s value.
-The Integrated Grid: Realizing the Full Value of Central and Distributed Energy Resources (abstract)
Leading technology integrator SAIC quantifies the value of distributed solar on the APS system in this report.
-2013 Updated Solar PV Value Report (PDF)
The cost shift caused by net metering on the APS system is detailed in this white paper prepared by global professional services firm Navigant Consulting.
-Net Metering Bill Impacts and Distributed Energy Subsidies (PDF) 
The Edison Foundation’s Institute for Electric Innovation outlines the value of the grid to rooftop solar customers and the need to solve the cost shift created by net metering.
-Value of the Grid to DG Customers (PDF)
This report from the Edison Foundation’s Institute for Electric Innovation examines regulatory approaches to reduce the financial impact of net metering on non-solar customers and create more transparent subsidies for solar energy.
-Net Energy Metering: Subsidy Issues and Regulatory Solutions (PDF)

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